This volume, which deals primarily with events in the twentieth century, begins with a discussion of the intemal developments in Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia from around 1878, and of the Romanian and South Slav nationalities of the Habsburg Empire from 1867. Despite their internal problems the independent Balkan states placed their first emphasis on acquiring lands still onder Ottoman or Habsburg tule. The Balkan Wars of 1912, and 1913, and in part World War I, had their origins in the desire of nationalist circles to complete the territorial unification of their states. The peace settlements after 1918, which established boundaries very similar to those in effect today, fulfilled most Romanian and Serbian desires, but left many Albanians, Bulgarians, Croats, and Greeks dissatisfied and resentful. In the intervar period the Balkan governments suffered from world economie and international crises and also from national and political conflicts within and among the states. After 1941, when war engulfed the peninsula, the Balkans became a bankfield between the Allied and Axis forces and the scene of the organization of resistance movements of major significance for the postwar settlement. A major part of this book deals with the wartime experiences of the Balkan states, the establishment of the postwar Communist governments, and the internal development of these regimes to 1980. The divergent paths followcd by the fivc sta. sincc 1945 are discusscd in detail.
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